THE WATCHMAKER

The battle between intelligent design and the theory of evolution has been in the news and the courts and will probably continue until Jesus returns.
       Evolutionists claim that the intelligent design movement is merely a pretense to introduce the religious belief of biblical creationism into our public schools.  The real reason they oppose the teaching of intelligent design is that it leads one to the inevitable conclusion that if man did not evolve, then there must be a creator.

        In 1859, Charles Darwin said in his Origin of the Species the proof of evolution would be the “transitional” or “intermediate” fossils, but he also lamented over the lack of evidence:

“Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory.”1

         If a species were to evolve into another there would have to be transitional fossils which would have characteristics of both the former and the latter.  Although there are between 100 and 200 million fossils in museums2 there is not one verifiable transitional fossil.

         In the year 2000, while I was at the Museum of Natural History in New York, I asked where the transitional fossils could be found, but they did not have any. The only displays of transitional forms were artist’s conceptions. Just like the theory of evolution they were all man made. One of those on display was of archaeoraptor, which was touted as a link between dinosaur’s and birds. The missing link had been found. Well, not really, it was later determined that it was actually part dinosaur and part bird which had been glued together by a Chinese farmer.3

         This was not an isolated incident. In Sussex, England in 1912 Piltdown Man was declared to be a link between ape and man.  In 1953 it was determined to be a forgery.  The skull was that of a man and the jaw was from an orangutan.4 The teeth had been filed down and it had been stained to give it the appearance of being older than it was.

         In 1922 Nebraska Man was promoted as another supposed link between ape and man. The artists conceptions in The Illustrated London News were based on what had been found, which was one tooth.5  The tooth turned out to be of a peccary (a type of pig). The missing link is still missing. There are no transitional fossils because there has been no evolution, but don’t take my word for it.  The following is a quote from Dr. D. James Kennedy of Coral Ridge Ministries:

“In the last few years, notable scientists like Steven Jay Gould of Harvard (now deceased), and Niles Eldredge of the American Museum of Natural History (both evolutionists) and others, have said that it has long been a trade secret of paleontology6 that there are no intermediate links. Now the time has come to tell the public: There are no intermediate links.  I have in my library copies of letters from the leading museums in the world: the British Museum, the American Museum, the Field Museum, the Peabody Museum, where the curators say if they had one intermediate link in their museum they would be happy to show it — but they do not.”7

         I am an advocate of scientific biblical creationism and so the evidence I present will be both scientific and theological.  I believe that the God of the Bible created the Earth as described in the Book of Genesis approximately 6,000 years ago.  I know a lot of you, including Christians, will consider me daft after that statement but I think if given the chance I can show that it is not such a stretch to believe that God created as he said.
        One possible and plausible scientific explanation for a literal six days of creation is Dr. Russell Humphreys’s, White Hole Cosmology. The creation could have taken six days as recorded in the Book of Genesis, but according to this cosmology, billions of years would have gone by in distant parts of the Universe.8

“God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night.   He also made the stars.   God set them in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth, to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness.   And God saw that it was good.   And there was evening, and there was morning—the fourth day.”
“Genesis 1: 16-19

         Perhaps now would be a good time to make clear some terms I am using.  “Intelligent design can be defined as a theory that holds that ‘certain features’ of living things were designed by an ‘intelligent cause’ as opposed to being formed through purely natural means.  The intelligent design theory does not name the intelligent cause, and it does not claim that everything is designed, thus allowing for evolution/natural causes to play a role.”9

Three forms of intelligent design are: biblical creation, creation science and scientific biblical creation. The main differences between them are:

        1.) In biblical creation the Bible is the only evidence required to defend the Bibles’ account of creation.
        2.) Creation science uses only science to defend the Bibles’ account of creation.
        3.) Scientific biblical creation uses both the Bible and scientific evidence to support the Bibles’ account of creation.

  As I stated earlier, I am a proponent of scientific biblical creation.  It may surprise you to learn that I do not believe biblical creationism should be taught in our public schools.  To force the study of a religious belief is clearly unconstitutional because it would violate the rights of both the students and the teachers. Frankly, a non-Christian is not likely to do a very good job teaching what he does not believe.  It is the responsibility of parents to teach their children that the Bible can be trusted in regard to all things including science and history.
         Creation science which is also known as scientific creation is based on scientific evidence and not the teachings of the Bible and in my opinion falls short because it does not show who created or why.  Even so, I believe it should be taught in public schools as an alternative point of view to evolution.

Evolutionists argue that intelligent design is religion and not science but in reality the argument is not about science versus theology; it is about one belief versus another belief with science being used to prove one or disprove the other.  They have ignored the fact that secular humanism has been declared to be a religion by the Untied States Supreme Court. The following from EDWARDS v. AGUILLARD, (1987) will show the relevance of that statement. Supreme Court Justice Scalia wrote (from his notes):

“‘Senator Keith and his witnesses testified essentially as set forth in the following numbered paragraphs’:…

(5) “The censorship of Creation Science has at least two harmful effects.  First, it deprives students of knowledge of one of the two scientific explanations for the origin of life and leads them to believe that evolution is proven fact; thus, their education suffers and they are wrongly taught that science has proven their religious beliefs false. Belief in evolution is a central tenet of the religion of Secular Humanism.  Thus, by censoring Creation Science and instructing students that evolution is fact, the public school teachers are now advancing religion in violation of the establishment laws.”10

There are thousands of scientists who have rejected Darwinian evolution based on their examination of the scientific evidence. 11The reason why two scientists who look at the same evidence will draw differing conclusions is quite simple; everyone comes to the table with a different set of beliefs and interprets the evidence based on those beliefs. A perfect example of this is the many millions of fossils that have been discovered around the world. An evolutionary scientist will look and see the remains of animals buried in different layers of earth over a long period of time. A creation scientist will see millions of animals buried quickly by a worldwide flood as described in the Bible’s Book of Genesis.

Scientific study normally deals with processes that can be repeated and observed. Creation cannot be observed, repeated, or tested and as in the example of interpreting the age of fossils, scientific studies relating to creation rely heavily on one’s preconceived beliefs.

Evolution has been taught in our schools as fact and is continually being reported as such by the various media. Because of this many Christians have accepted theistic evolution, the belief that God created through evolution, without realizing how harmful this viewpoint can be to their faith.

If science can “prove” that man has evolved and the Earth had its beginning billions of years ago then the events and times of creation as given in Genesis 1 and 2 cannot be true. And if the Bible cannot be trusted on its first pages then how can any of it be trusted?

Genesis 1 through 11 is the foundation for all the theology and morality that is found in both the Old and the New Testaments, and if Genesis can be interpreted to conform with worldly beliefs then why not the entire Bible?  

Let me make an appeal to the logic of all Christians who believe that God created through evolution.  The Bible tells us that death entered the world because of the sin of the first man, Adam.  If he was the product of evolution then there would have been death in the world before Adam. If man has evolved then the Bible is in error and therefore clearly not the word of God.  If a Christian is a follower of Christ how can they deny what He has said is true?

Jesus referred to Genesis as literal history and not as allegories, fables, or parables when He spoke of the Flood. If He was wrong about the Flood then, “Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die,” (Isaiah 22:13) because that’s all there is.

Many Christians have compromised their faith by believing in the gap theory which tries to combine evolution and creationism by treating each day of creation as an indefinite period of time. This will not work, for various reasons, such as:

1.) Trustworthy Hebrew dictionaries, like the Brown, Driver, Briggs Lexicon (DBD) agree that the Hebrew word for day (yom) as it is used in the first week of creation (in Genesis), must represent a literal 24 hour day.  That is to say, whenever yom is used with a number or with morning or evening it must signify a 24 hour day.12

 2.) God defined and established the “day” as the period of light in the daily cycle of light and dark. Unless you try to read something different into it, the meaning is very clear…

“God saw that the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness.   God called the light ‘day,’ and the darkness he called ‘night.’   And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day.”
Genesis 1:4-5

      3.) If there had been millions of years of evolution (death and disease) before the sixth day would God have called that “very good”?

“God saw all that he had made, and it was very good.   And there was evening, and there was morning—the sixth day.”
Genesis 1: 31

4.) God tells us clearly in Genesis that man did not evolve. Adam was the first man and on the sixth day God created him using elements from the earth. And while we’re on this subject, Eve did not evolve either. God formed her from one of Adam’s ribs. Often people will laugh at this and the Bible because men have the same amount of ribs as women. This is really a silly argument for two reasons. If a man with one leg fathers a child, will that child have only one leg? And, did you know that human ribs can grow back when they are carefully removed by surgeons and used for reconstructing damaged bones?  Ironically, this has been called the “Eve procedure.”13

“Then the Lord God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being.”
Genesis 2: 7

“So the Lord God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep; and while he was sleeping, he took one of the man’s ribs and then closed up the place with flesh.   Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man.
The man said,
‘This is now bone of my bones
and flesh of my flesh;
she shall be called ‘woman,’
for she was taken out of man.'”

Genesis 2: 21-23

You may wonder why many people are so willing to accept evolutionary theory as fact.  The answer is simple: if man did not evolve, then he was created.  And if he was created, then there is a Creator who man must answer to.  There is no other choice.

Some famous men who based their justification of Nazism, Fascism, Communism, and Humanism on evolutionary teachings are, respectively; Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Karl Marx, and Carl Sagan. The following quotation is by Sir Arthur Keith who was one of the foremost evolutionists and anthropologists14 of the twentieth century:

“The German Fuhrer, as I have consistently maintained, is an evolutionist; he has consciously sought to make the practice of Germany conform to the theory of evolution.”15

The following quote by Adolf Hitler is from Mein Kampf:

“The pre-requisite for improvement of the species lies not in the union of the superior and the inferior, but in the complete victory of the former. The stronger must dominate and not mate with the weaker, which would signify the sacrifice of its own higher nature. Only the born weakling can look upon this principle as cruel, and if he does so it is merely because he is of a feebler nature and narrower mind; for if such a law did not direct the process of evolution then the higher development of organic life would not be conceivable at all.”17

Evolutionists are quick to deny the connection between Darwin and the atrocities committed by these and other men but consider the following:

Karl Marx (the founder of communism) wrote that the The Origin of the Species agreed with his communist policies and Stalin believed the atrocities committed under his regime (estimated to be 20 million people) were justified by Darwin’s evolutionary principles.16

Mao Tse Tung, Communist leader, who came to power in 1949 regarded Charles Darwin and Thomas Huxley18 as his favorite authors. Leon Trotsky19 who persecuted the Christian church said, “Darwin stood for me like a mighty doorkeeper at the entrance to the temple of the universe.”20

Evolution is a lie, the purpose of which is to keep people from accepting the message of the Gospel.  Jesus said this himself in John 5: 46-47.  Keep in mind that Genesis was written through Moses:

“If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote about me.  But since you do not believe what he wrote, how are you going to believe what I say?”

If someone doesn’t believe the account of history as given in Genesis; the Creation, the Fall, the Flood, then why should they believe in a need for a Savior?

For more than a century we have been told that evolution occurred gradually over millions of years.  Now, evolutionists have had to give up this argument because the evidence (transitional fossils) cannot be found.  Some, out of ignorance or deceit, are still claiming the fossil record proves evolution to be fact.  The following quote is from a notable evolutionist:

“In a published interview, Dr. Niles Eldredge, an invertebrate paleontologist21 at the American Museum of Natural History, stated:

“But the smooth transition from one form of life to another which is implied in the theory is… not borne out by the facts. The search for ‘missing links’ between various living creatures, like humans and apes, is probably fruitless… because they probably never existed as distinct transitional types… But no one has yet found any evidence of such transitional creatures. This oddity has been attributed to gaps in the fossil record which gradualists expected to fill when rock strata of the proper age had been found. In the last decade, however, geologists have found rock layers of all divisions of the last 500 million years and no transitional forms were contained in them. If it is not the fossil record which is incomplete then it must be the theory.” – Niles Eldredge22

Because there in no scientific evidence for gradual evolution, new and even more fanciful theories have been developed to overcome this problem.  A theory that you may be familiar with is punctuated equilibrium.  A dinosaur laid an egg, and a dinosaur crawled out.  A dinosaur laid an egg and…  a bird flew out!  This would certainly explain the absence of any transitional fossils.
        Another popular theory (especially in Hollywood) is directed panspermia in which supposed aliens “planted” their seed on Earth.  To that we should ask, “How did this alien race begin?” and “Could that alien race have evolved somewhere else in the Universe?”
        Actually, a more relevant question is, could life have evolved here or anywhere else in the Universe as evolutionists claim by spontaneous generation? (The theory that living organisms can originate in non-living matter independently of other living matter.)  The answer is an emphatic no:

Spontaneous generation was disproved by the careful studies of Redi (1688), Spallanzanu (1780), Virchow (1858), and Pasteur (1860).  The works of these men and others have established the Law of Biogenesis: life comes only from pre-existing life and will only perpetuate its own kind.

“And God said, ‘Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind.’ And it was so.” 
Genesis 1: 24

 Francis Crick was an atheist and one of the world’s most prestigious biologists and codiscoverer of DNA, the most complex molecule known to man (1953).  He examined the possibility of a cell coming into existence by chance on Earth and stated that it appears to be, “Almost a miracle.”23

Another atheist, Sir Fred Hoyle of Cambridge University, was one of the most noted astronomers and mathematicians of the twentieth century.  He examined the probabilities of life forming on this planet, and the following quotation is attributed to him:

“The notion that not only the biopolymer but the operating program of a living cell could be arrived at by chance in a primordial organic soup here on the Earth is evidently nonsense of a high order.”24

I have the book, Genesis On Planet Earth, by William Day.  The only biographical information it contains on the author states that he was a research associate in the department of chemistry at the University of Iowa.  From what I have read I have to believe it is written from an evolutionary point of view. The author wrote the following:

“A curious flaw of human nature is to permit the imagery of a catchy phrase to shape one’s reasoning. Haldane’s hot dilute soup became ‘primordial soup,’ a feature that has been popularized for nearly 50 years without geologic evidence that it ever existed.”25

Hoyle also examined the probability of life arising on some other planet in the entire assumed age of the Universe (which is currently believed to be approximately 13.77 billion years old)26  and concluded that it could not have happened:

“The probability of an evolutionary origin of life was essentially zero-no greater than the probability that a tornado sweeping through a junkyard would assemble a Boeing 747.”27

I hope you will bear with me while I try to show evidence for a “young Earth.”  I do not know the age of the Universe, but it is certainly closer to 6 thousand than 4.5 billion years (the estimated age of our solar system.)28

The evidence to support this claim is very powerful to those who are willing to open their mind to what God was saying to evolutionists on May 18, 1980.
        The different layers of the Earth’s surface are known as strata and evolutionists use this as a way of dating living things by where their fossils are found.  It is believed that the lower the level of strata that a fossil is found in, the further back in time that it lived.

A good example of this is the Grand Canyon.  The many layers of strata that are visible to study are explained by evolutionary geologists as having been caused by erosion over millions of years by the Colorado River.  Stay with me here; the point I am trying to make is not that the different layers of strata are easily seen.  The point is that those different layers are only supposed to develop over millions of years.

On May 18, 1980, Mt. St. Helens in Washington erupted and the events that followed changed the thinking of many geologists.  The volcanic eruption produced many layers of strata to a depth of six hundred feet.  The rapid formation caused a 140 foot deep canyon through the strata and created a 1/40th scale model of the Grand Canyon.  What was supposed to take millions of years to occur took only days.

Evolutionists teach that the age of the strata can be determined by the fossils that are found in it, and the age of the fossil can be determined by the layer of strata that it is found in.  Did you catch that?

Dating methods used by evolutionists are unreliable because they are based on the assumption that the Earth is billions of years old. Fossilized wood that was found in strata believed to be millions of years old was tested by the carbon-14 method and was shown to be only thousands of years old.  Lava from Mt. St. Helens was tested by the potassium-argon method fourteen years after the eruption and dated at 350,000 years.29

Likewise, 50 year old lava from Mt. Ngauruhoe was dated at 3.5 million years.30

“Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation?”
Job 38: 4

Through the eruption of Mt. St. Helens, God has shown us how strata and fossils were created by what scientists refer to as a global hydraulic cataclysm. This event is described in the Bible as the Genesis Flood.  Dead animals either decay or are devoured by insects or other animals. The billions of fossils perfectly preserved in the Earth’s strata are a record of sudden mass death and destruction caused by Noah’s Flood.  The global flood carried the sand, silt, clay, plants and animals that produced the layers of rock which contain these fossils. And keep in mind that most fossils are found in sedimentary rock which is formed by… flowing water.

Ask an evolutionist for a reasonable explanation of how fossils are found extending through one layer of strata to another if the layers took millions of years to form.  It can’t happen.  How could the lower part of the fossil have been preserved as the strata formed around it over thousands of years?  How could the part that stuck out of the first layer not have decayed, been eaten, or broken off while the next layer formed around it over thousands of years?  As I said, it can’t happen and it isn’t happening today, which is a real problem for evolutionists.

It is bad science to ignore the clear meaning of facts because they do not conform to the theory of evolution or the various “Big Bang” theories which teach that the Universe created itself.  Many facts are ignored for this reason. Let me list just a few of the many examples that illustrate how scientific evidence which contradicts an old Earth and Universe will not be accepted by evolutionists:

The Earth’s magnetic field has been accurately measured since 1835 and has been shown to be decaying at a half life of 1,400 years, meaning that 1,400 years ago it was twice as strong as it is now.  At that rate just 10,000 years ago the magnetic field of the Earth would have been strong enough to melt the planet.

Each time comets orbit the Sun they lose some of their mass and it has been determined that they would totally dissipate in about 10,000 years.  Comets are assumed to be the same age as the Solar System and no practical source has been found for the creation of new comets. Notice that I said, “no practical source,” because there are theories such as the Oort Cloud which is, “A theoretical group of planetary leftovers that supposedly orbits the solar system… But, no confirmed direct observations of the Oort Cloud have been made.”31  That sounds like another attempt by evolutionists to explain what can’t be explained if the Earth is millions of years old.

Fossils of salamanders have been found in layers of strata which are determined to be 150 million years old.  The problem for evolutionists is that the fossils and the salamanders walking around today are identical.  There has been no change.  And salamanders are not unique in this sense because there are many other examples of “living fossils” today.

Evolutionary scientists believe that all dinosaurs became extinct at least 65 million years ago, but recently Tyrannosaurus Rex bones were discovered that contained soft tissue including blood vessels, cells, and connective tissue which could not have remained intact for millions of years.32

For anyone seeking more information about the creation/evolution debate some great resources are Creation Ministries International at creation.com, Institute for Creation Research at icr.org, and Ken Ham’s Answers in Genesis at answersingenesis.org.

The following quote regarding the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics is by Dr. Henry M. Morris and Dr. John D. Morris.  Keep in mind that by “First Cause” they undoubtedly are referring to God:

“Thus, the Second Law proves, as certainly as science can prove anything whatever, that the universe had a beginning. Similarly, the First Law shows that the universe could not have begun itself. The total quantity of energy in the universe is a constant, but the quantity of available energy is decreasing. Therefore, as we go backward in time, the available energy would have been progressively greater until, finally, we would reach the beginning point, where available energy equaled total energy. Time could go back no further than this. At this point both energy and time must have come into existence. Since energy could not create itself, the most scientific and logical conclusion to which we could possibly come is that the First Cause created energy (including matter), as well as time.”33

Another way of stating the above would be to say, “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.” The following on the subject of information is from In the Beginning was Information by Dr. Werner Gitt:

“Because information is required of all life processes, it can be stated unequivocally that information is an essential characteristic of all life. All efforts to explain life processes in terms of physics and chemistry only, will always be unsuccessful. This is the fundamental problem confronting present-day biology, which is based on evolution.”34

“Every piece of creative information represents some mental effort and can be traced to a personal idea-giver who exercised his own free will, and who is endowed with an intelligent mind.”35

“There is no known law of nature through which matter can give rise to information, neither is any physical process or material phenomenon known that can do this.”36


In 1802, theologian William Paley wrote that if you find a pocket watch in a field, the most reasonable conclusion is that someone dropped it there and not that it was created there by any natural forces.  He then argued that other even more complex living things could not have come about by natural forces and therefore must have been created.

A watch requires a watchmaker and so intelligent design requires a designer.  The Universe and all it contains are the work of an intelligent designer.  Man could not have evolved and is therefore the product of intelligence.  God is the Watchmaker.  God is the Intelligent Designer.  And he has revealed himself to us by stepping into his creation in the form of a man, Jesus Christ.

“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.   Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.
        And God said: Let there be light, and there was light.   God saw that the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness.
        God called the light ‘day,’ and the darkness he called ‘night.’   And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day.”
“Genesis 1: 1-5

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.  He was with God in the beginning.
        Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made.  In him was life, and that life was the light of men.”
John 1: 1-4

“For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities–his eternal power and divine nature–have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.”
Romans 1: 20

Just as the Bible can be trusted regarding creation, it can also be relied on concerning salvation:

“And this is the testimony: God has given us eternal life, and this life is in his Son.  He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life.  I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life.”
1 John 5: 11-13

Let’s take another look at what Darwin had to say about his theory:

“Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links?  Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory.”

Well Charles, your hopes have been dashed and the foundation of your theory has crumbled; there are no transitional fossils. Had you been proven right, millions of the fossils that have been uncovered would have characteristics of fossils that came before them and those that appeared after them. There are no such fossils.

If Charles Darwin was alive today and able to see the multitude of evidence that has accumulated against his theory, would he be willing to face the alternative, that there must be a creator God? Would he admit that the biblical account of creation is indeed trustworthy? I doubt it.  For Charles Darwin, and perhaps millions of others with the same mind set, that would be a pill too hard to swallow. It is the theory of evolution that frees them from the authority of God’s Word.

 

GOD BLESS

MERRY CHRISTMAS

Bob Rani                                                 Mike & Sheri Rani

 

All scripture from the New International Version (NIV) 1984 edition.

1    Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, 1859, Chapter 9: On the Imperfection of the Geological Record.

2   Dr. John F. Ashton, Evolution Impossible: 12 Reasons Why Evolution Cannot Explain the Origin of Life on Earth, First Edition, 2012, Master Books, A Division of the New Leaf Publishing Group, Inc., Endnote 30: Carl Warner, The Quest for an Answer, Evolution: The Grand Experiment, Volume 1, (Green Forest, AR: New Leaf Press, 2009), p. 77.

3    Chuck Colson, The Archaeoraptor Fraud, Breaking Point, accessed 11/22/2015, <https://www.breakpoint.org/bpcommentaries/breakpoint-commentaries-search/entry/13/12450>.

4    Sarah Pruitt, Piltdown Man Hoax, 100 Years Ago,  History in the Headlines,  <http://www.history.com/news/piltdown-man-hoax-100-years-ago>.

5   Kenneth Ham, Creation Ministry in the United Kingdom, Institute for Creation Research, accessed 11/22/2015,<http://www.icr.org/article/creation-ministry-united-kingdom/>.

6   Study of pre-existing life forms (fossils).

7    D. James Kennedy, A.B., M. Div., M. Th., D.D., D. Sac. Lit., Ph. D., Litt. D., D. Sac. Theol., D. Humane Let., From printed version of the sermon, Creationism: Science or Religion?, p. 10, Coral Ridge Ministries, P.O. Box 40, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33302.

8   Creation Wiki, Encyclopedia of Creation Science, accessed 11/22/2015, <http://creationwiki.org/White_hole_cosmology>.

9 Dr. Georgia Purdum, The Intelligent Design Movement, Does the identity of the Creator really matter?, Answers in Genesis, accessed 11/22/2015,
<https://answersingenesis.org/intelligent-design/is-the-intelligent-design movement-christian/>.

10   Cornell University Law School, Legal Information Institute, 482 U.S. 578, Edwards v. Aguillard (No. 85-1513), Argued: December 10, 1986, Decided: June 19, 1987, accessed 1/3/2015,  “‘Senator Keith and his witnesses testified essentially as set forth in the following numbered paragraphs’:…
…(5) ‘The censorship of creation science has at least two harmful effects. First, it de-prives students of knowledge of one of the two scientific explanations for the origin of life, and leads them to believe that evolution is proven fact; thus, their education suffers, and they are wrongly taught that science has proved their re-ligious beliefs false. Second, it violates the Establishment Clause. The United States Supreme Court has held that secular humanism is a relig-ion. Id. at E-36 (Sen. Keith) (referring to Tor-caso v. Watkins, 367 U.S. 488, 495, n. 11 (1961));1 App. E-418 (Sen. Keith); 2 id. at E-499 (Sen. Keith). Belief in evolution is a central tenet of that religion. 1 id. at E-282 (Sen. Keith); id. at E-312 – E-313 (Sen. Keith); id. at E-317 (Sen. Keith); id. at E-418 (Sen. Keith); 2 id. at E-499 (Sen. Keith). Thus, by censoring cre-ation science and instructing students that evolu-tion is fact, public school teachers are now ad-vancing religion in violation of the Establishment Clause. 1 id. at E-2 – E-4 [p625] (Sen. Keith); id. at E-36 – E-37, E-39 (Sen. Keith); id. at E-154 – E-155 (Boudreaux paper); id. at E-281 – E-282 (Sen. Keith); id. at E-313 (Sen. Keith); id. at E-315 – E-316 (Sen. Keith); id. at E-317 (Sen. Keith); 2 id. at E-499 – E-500 (Sen. Keith).'”<http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/482/578#writing-USSC_CR_0482_0578_ZD>.

11  How Many Scientists Reject Darwinian Evolution?, Way of Life Literature, Inc., accessed  11/22/2015,  <http://www.wayoflife.org/index_files/how_many_scientists_reject_darwinism.html>.

12  Ken Ham, The Necessity for Believing in Six Literal Days, December 1, 1995, Answers in Genesis, accessed 11/22/2015, <https://answersingenesis.org/why-does-creation-matter/the-necessity-for-believing-in-six-literal-days/>.

13   Rib Thoracoplasty, National Scoliosis Foundation, accessed 11/22/2015,<http://www.scoliosis.org/resources/medicalupdates/ribthoracoplasty.php>.

14  Those who study the history of man.

15  Sir Arthur Keith, EVOLUTION AND ETHICS, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York, VAN REES PRESS NEW YORK, Chapter 40 An Evolutionary Interpretation of the Second World War, p. 230, accessed October 12, 2013, <http://www.bearfabrique.org/Evolution08/evolution-and-ethics.html>.

16   MARXISM AND NATURAL SELECTION, Natural Selection and Darwinism, (Based on the works of Harun Yaha), <http://www.naturalselectionanddarwinism.com/marxism.html>.

17  Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Volume 1: A Retrospect, Chapter XI, Race and People, p. 174, HURST AND BLACKETT LTD., Publishers since 1812, LONDON “NEW YORK” MELBOURNE, This translation of the unexpurgated edition of “Mein Kampf” was first published on March 21st, 1939.

18  Thomas Huxley was known as Darwin’s Bulldog and wrote Evolution and Ethics which was published in 1898.

19  (1879-1940) Trotsky was a Russian Marxist and the first leader of the Red Army.

20  Barry Woolley, The Darwin/Trotsky Connection, Creation Ministries International, Creation.com, Accessed October 11, 2013, <http://creation.com/darwin-trotsky-connection>.

21  Someone who studies fossils of creatures without a backbone.

22  Walt Brown, Ph.D., In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for the Creation and the Flood, Seventh edition, 2001 by Walt Brown. All rights reserved, ISBN 1-878026-08-9, printed in Hong Kong, page 52, quoting Missing, Believed Nonexistent, Manchester Guardian (The Washington Post Weekly), Vol. 119, No. 22, 26 November 1978, p. 1.

23  Crick, F., Life Itself, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981, p.88.

24 Greg Demme and Jonathan Sarfati, Big bang critic dies (Fred Hoyle), Creation Ministries International, accessed 11/22/2015, <http://creation.com/big-bang-critic-dies-fred-hoyle>.

25William Day, Genesis On Planet Earth, The Search for Life’s Beginning, Second Edition, 1984, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, p. 151.

26Don Batten, Age of the earth 101 evidences for a young age of the earth and the universe, Published: 4 June 2009(GMT+10), Creation Ministries International, accessed 11/23/2015, <http://creation.com/age-of-the-earth>.

27 Duane Gish, Ph.D., The Arkansas Decision on Creation-Science, Institute for Creation Research, accessed 11/23/2015, <http://www.icr.org/article/arkansas-decision-creation-science/>.

28 Don Batten, Age of the earth 101 evidences for a young age of the earth and the universe, Published: 4 June 2009, Creation Ministries International, accessed November 23, 2015, <http://creation.com/age-of-the-earth>.

29 S. A. Austin, “Excess Argon within Mineral Concentrates from the New Dacite Lava Dome at Mount St. Helens Volcano,” Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 10.3 (1996): 335–343, this information was retrieved from answersingenesis.org, October 4, 2015, <https://answersingenesis.org/geology/mount-st-helens/argon-in-mineral-concentrates-from-mount-st-helens-volcano/>.

30 Dr. Andrew A. Snelling, “Radioactive ‘Dating’ Failure Recent New Zealand Lava Flows Yield ‘Ages’ of Millions of Years“, Originally published in Creation 22, no 1 (December 1999): 18-21, accessed from answersingenesis.org, December 27, 2015, <https://answersingenesis.org/geology/carbon-14/radioactive-dating-failure/>.

31 Brian Thomas, M.S., New Comet Origins Idea Adds New Problems, Institute for Creation Re-search, accessed December 5, 2015, <http://www.icr.org/article/new-comet-origins/>.

32 Dr. David Menton, #3 Soft Tissue in Fossils 10 Best Evidences From Science That Confirm a Young Earth, October 1, 2012, accessed from answersingenesis.org December 28, 2015, <https://answersingenesis.org/fossils/3-soft-tissue-in-fossils/>.

33 Dr. Henry M. Morris, Dr. John D. Morris, The Modern Creation Trilogy, Science & Crea-tion, Volume II, p. 132, First printing: Novem-ber 1996, Copyright 1996 by Master Books, All rights reserved, Printed in the United States of America, No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations in articles and reviews, For information write: Master Books, Inc., P.O. Box 727, Green Forest, AR 72638, ISBN: 0-89051-221-3.

34 Dr. Werner Gitt, In the Beginning was In-formation, 2nd English Translation, 2000, CLV Christliche Literatur-Verbreitung e. V., Trans-lation to English: Prof. Dr. Jaap Kies, South Africa, p. 9, accessed November 29, 2013, <http://www.clv-server.de/pdf/255255.pdf>.

35 Ibid, p. 113.

36 Ibid, p. 79.

One Response to THE WATCHMAKER

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